Cellular Reprogramming: Background, Approaches and Progress

 | Post date: 2021/06/17 | 
The first evidence for cellular reprogramming was provided in 1958 by John Gurdon. In his famous experiment, the somatic nuclei of an adult Xenopus (African frog) were transplanted into an oocyte, which was then able to develop into a sexually mature adult.
The reprogramming of somatic cells with defined factors, which converts cells from one lineage into cells of another, has greatly reshaped our traditional views on cell identity and cell fate determination. Cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), embryonic-like stem cells that can turn into any cell type and have extensive potential medical uses. Ectopic expression of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc can reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Attempts to identify genes or chemicals that can functionally replace each of these four reprogramming factors have revealed that exogenous Oct4 is not necessary for reprogramming under certain conditions or in the presence of alternative factors that can regulate endogenous Oct4 expression.
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