Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV):Diagnosing, Concepts and Tests |

 | Post date: 2021/12/6 | 

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It weakens a person’s immune system by destroying important cells that fight disease and infection. There is currently no effective cure for HIV. But with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Some groups of people in the United States are more likely to get HIV than others because of many factors, including their sex partners and risk behaviors.
Newer, Improved HIV Tests Allow for Earlier HIV Detection

HIV tests have improved substantially over the years, and are now easier and less expensive, with a more rapid turnaround time for results.

Three types of HIV tests are available:

  • Nucleic acid tests (NATs) — detects HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  • Antigen/antibody combination tests — detects HIV p24 antigen as well as HIV immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies
  • Antibody tests — detects HIV IgM and/or IgG antibodies

Following an exposure that leads to HIV infection, the amount of time during which no existing diagnostic test is capable of detecting HIV is called the eclipse period.
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