A brain–spine interface: Walking naturally after spinal cord injury!

 | Post date: 2023/06/6 | 
A spinal cord injury interrupts the communication between the brain and the region of the spinal cord that produces walking, leading to paralysis. In a recent study, the researchers restored this communication with a digital bridge between the brain and spinal cord that enabled an individual with chronic tetraplegia to stand and walk naturally in community settings. This brain–spine interface (BSI) consists of fully implanted recording and stimulation systems that establish a direct link between cortical signals and the analogue modulation of epidural electrical stimulation targeting the spinal cord regions involved in the production of walking. A highly reliable BSI is calibrated within a few minutes. This reliability has remained stable over one year, including during independent use at home. The participant reports that the BSI enables natural control over the movements of his legs to stand, walk, climb stairs and even traverse complex terrains. Moreover, neurorehabilitation supported by the BSI improved neurological recovery. The participant regained the ability to walk with crutches overground even when the BSI was switched off. This digital bridge establishes a framework to restore natural control of movement after paralysis. A man paralyzed in 2011 has regained the ability to stand and walk with the help of implants placed in his brain and spinal cord. The patient, 40-year-old Gert-Jan Oskam of the Netherlands, was told he would never walk again after a biking accident. He suffered severe but partial damage to his spinal cord, which paralyzed his legs and partially paralyzed his arms.
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How exercise protects against brain strokes?

 | Post date: 2023/05/23 | 
In a recent study, published in the journal of Stroke and Vascular Neurology at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, the researchers showed Regular physical activity and exercise may reduce bleeding in individuals with intracerebral hemorrhage. according to the results of this study which evaluated  686 people treated for intracerebral hemorrhage between 2014 and 2019, individuals who engaged in regular physical activity had, on average, bleeding volumes that were 50 percent smaller upon arriving to the hospital. 
Prestroke physical activity (PA) has been linked to improved outcomes after intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), but its association with ICH volume is unknown. Intracerebral hemorrhage is the most dangerous type of stroke and can lead to life-threatening conditions. The risk of severe consequences from the hemorrhage increases with the extent of the bleeding.
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Mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT) and three-person in vitro fertilization (IVF)!

 | Post date: 2023/05/16 | 

Mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT), also known as mitochondrial donation, is a cutting-edge reproductive technology aimed at preventing the transmission of certain mitochondrial diseases from parent to child. Mitochondria are essential components of cells responsible for generating energy, and when they malfunction, it can lead to severe health issues.

MRT involves the transfer of healthy mitochondria from a donor to an individual or couple who carries mitochondrial DNA mutations or abnormalities. This technique offers hope to families affected by mitochondrial diseases, as it allows them to have healthy children while minimizing the risk of passing on these genetic conditions.

There are two primary techniques used in mitochondrial replacement therapy:

a. Pronuclear Transfer: This method involves transferring the nuclear DNA from the intended parents' embryo into a donor embryo that has had its nuclear DNA removed. The resulting embryo contains the intended parents' nuclear DNA and healthy mitochondria from the donor.

b. Maternal Spindle Transfer: In this technique, the nucleus is removed from the intended mother's egg before it is fertilized. The nucleus is then transferred into a donor egg that has had its nucleus removed. This reconstructed egg, with the intended mother's nuclear DNA and healthy mitochondria from the donor, is fertilized with sperm.
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Bridging the Gap: Artificial Intelligence in Revolutionizing Brain Hemorrhage Diagnosis

 | Post date: 2023/05/10 | 
Brain hemorrhage, also known as intracranial hemorrhage, is a potentially life-threatening problem that has many direct and indirect causes. Brain hemorrhages can result from various causes, including head trauma, high blood pressure, certain medications, blood vessel abnormalities, and bleeding disorders. Symptoms can vary depending on the location and severity of the hemorrhage but may include severe headache, nausea, vomiting, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, seizures, and loss of consciousness.

There are different types of brain hemorrhages, including:

  1. Intracerebral hemorrhage: This occurs when blood vessels within the brain rupture and bleed into the surrounding tissue.

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: This type of hemorrhage involves bleeding into the space between the brain and the tissues that cover it.

  3. Epidural hemorrhage: It occurs when bleeding occurs between the skull and the outermost covering of the brain (dura mater).

  4. Subdural hemorrhage: This involves bleeding between the dura mater and the brain's surface.

Accuracy in diagnosing the presence and type of intracranial hemorrhage is a critical part of effective treatment. Diagnosis is often an urgent procedure requiring review of medical images by highly trained specialists and sometimes necessitating confirmation through clinical history, vital signs, and laboratory examinations. The process is complicated and requires immediate identification for optimal treatment.​​​​​​ Artificial intelligence (AI) can play a valuable role in assisting with the diagnosis of brain hemorrhage, a potentially life-threatening condition. 

Here are a few ways AI can contribute to the diagnosis of brain hemorrhage:

  1. Medical imaging analysis: AI algorithms can be trained to analyze medical imaging scans, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to detect signs of brain hemorrhage. These algorithms can quickly and accurately identify abnormalities, such as bleeding, in the brain.

  2. Pattern recognition: AI models can be trained on large datasets of brain hemorrhage cases, enabling them to recognize patterns and features that may indicate the presence of a hemorrhage. By comparing new cases to this trained knowledge, AI systems can provide insights and flag potential cases for further review by medical professionals.

  3. Decision support: AI can assist healthcare professionals by providing decision support systems based on established clinical guidelines and protocols. By inputting patient data, such as symptoms, medical history, and laboratory results, AI algorithms can offer recommendations or probabilities regarding the likelihood of a brain hemorrhage, helping doctors make more informed decisions.

  4. Risk assessment: AI can help in predicting the risk of brain hemorrhage in certain patient populations. By analyzing vast amounts of patient data, including demographics, medical history, and lifestyle factors, AI models can identify risk factors and calculate individualized risk scores. This information can aid in early intervention and preventive measures.
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Electric Stimulation: Heals Wounds Three Times as Fast!

 | Post date: 2023/05/2 | 
Chronic wounds are a major health problem for diabetic patients and the elderly -- in extreme cases they can even lead to amputation. Using electric stimulation, researchers in a project at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and the University of Freiburg, Germany, have developed a method that speeds up the healing process, making wounds heal three times faster. Upon cutaneous injury, the human body naturally forms an electric field (EF) that acts as a guidance cue for relevant cellular and tissue repair and reorganization. However, the direct current (DC) flow imparted by this EF can be impacted by a variety of diseases. This work delves into the impact of DC stimulation on both healthy and diabetic in vitro wound healing models of human keratinocytes, the most prevalent cell type of the skin. The culmination of non-metal electrode materials and prudent microfluidic design allowed us to create a compact bioelectronic platform to study the effects of different sustained (12 hours galvanostatic DC) EF configurations on wound closure dynamics. Specifically, They compared if electrotactically closing a wound's gap from one wound edge (i.e., uni-directional EF) is as effective as compared to alternatingly polarizing both the wound's edges (i.e., pseudo-converging EF) as both of these spatial stimulation strategies are fundamental to the eventual translational electrode design and strategy. They found that uni-directional electric guidance cues were superior in group keratinocyte healing dynamics by enhancing the wound closure rate nearly three-fold for both healthy and diabetic-like keratinocyte collectives, compared to their non-stimulated respective controls. The motility-inhibited and diabetic-like keratinocytes regained wound closure rates with uni-directional electrical stimulation (increase from 1.0 to 2.8% h−1) comparable to their healthy non-stimulated keratinocyte counterparts (3.5% h−1). Their results bring hope that electrical stimulation delivered in a controlled manner can be a viable pathway to accelerate wound repair, and also by providing a baseline for other researchers trying to find an optimal electrode blueprint for in vivo DC stimulation.

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Melanocyte stem cells' role in hair turning gray!

 | Post date: 2023/04/25 | 
the results of a study conducted by researchers from NYU Grossman School of Medicine revealed that hair color is controlled by whether nonfunctional but continually multiplying pools of melanocyte stem cells (McSCs) within hair follicles get the signal to become mature cells that make the protein pigments responsible for color. For unknown reasons, the McSCs system fails earlier than other adult stem cell populations, which leads to hair greying in most humans and mice. Current dogma states that McSCs are reserved in an undifferentiated state in the hair follicle niche, physically segregated from differentiated progeny that migrate away following cues of regenerative stimuli. In this study, researchers show that most McSCs toggle between transit-amplifying and stem cell states for both self-renewal and generation of mature progeny, a mechanism fundamentally distinct from those of other self-renewing systems. Live imaging and single-cell RNA sequencing revealed that McSCs are mobile, translocating between hair follicle stem cells and transit-amplifying compartments where they reversibly enter distinct differentiation states governed by local microenvironmental cues (for example, WNT). Long-term lineage tracing demonstrated that the McSC system is maintained by reverted McSCs rather than by reserved stem cells inherently exempt from reversible changes. During ageing, there is accumulation of stranded McSCs that do not contribute to the regeneration of melanocyte progeny. These results identify a new model whereby dedifferentiation is integral to homeostatic stem cell maintenance and suggest that modulating McSC mobility may represent a new approach for the prevention of hair greying.

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Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Etiology, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Controlling!

 | Post date: 2023/04/18 | 
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), known as brittle bone disease, is a genetic disorder that prevents the formation of strong bones. Mutation in genes that carry the instructions for making type I collagen leads to OI. Collagen is an important protein that gives structure and strength to bones, so a mutation in collagen-related genes (usually a mutation in the COL1A1 or COL1A2) causes bones to be fragile and prone to breaking. Type I collagen is also in other connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, lungs, skin, and etc. In addition to the skeletal issues, OI can also affect other organs, such as teeth, eyes, and ears. some people with OI may also experience hearing loss, respiratory problems, and joint laxity. 
Oi is a rare genetic disorder, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 10,000 to 20,000 live birth worldwide. the prevalence of OI varies among different populations and is thought to be higher in certain regions, such as the Middle East and North Africa. Though anyone can be born with OI, people with a family history of the disease are at greater risk of inheriting the disease through an abnormal gene that is passed on from one or both parents. Oi affects males and females equally.
Diagnosis of OI is based on skeletal and extra-skeletal clinical findings. Radiological studies reveal osteoporosis and the presence of Wormian bones. Bone densitometry confirms the low bone mass.
there is no definite treatment for OI. However, he treatment of OI is directed toward the specific symptoms that are apparent in each individual. Treatment is aimed at preventing symptoms, maintaining individual mobility, and strengthening bone and muscle. Attention to nutrition and overall physical and psychological well-being is also very important.

Given the severe clinical manifestations of OI and the limitations of current treatments, a clear unmet medical need exists for treatment of OI. Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) presents a potential new mode of treatment, specifically starting treatment before birth or as early as possible after birth, to prevent irreversible damage

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A synaptic amplifier of hunger for regaining body weight in the hypothalamus: Possible target for drugs to combat the yo-yo effect!

 | Post date: 2023/04/11 | 
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research and Harvard Medical School have now shown a synaptic amplifier of hunger for regaining body weight in the hypothalamus. Restricting caloric intake effectively reduces body weight, but most dieters fail long-term adherence to caloric deficit and eventually regain lost weight. Hypothalamic circuits that control hunger drive critically determine body weight; yet, how weight loss sculpts these circuits to motivate food consumption until lost weight is regained remains unclear. In this study, researchers probe the contribution of synaptic plasticity in discrete excitatory afferents on hunger-promoting AgRP neurons. They reveal a crucial role for activity-dependent, remarkably long-lasting amplification of synaptic activity originating from paraventricular hypothalamus thyrotropin-releasing (PVHTRH) neurons in long-term body weight control. Silencing PVHTRH neurons inhibits the potentiation of excitatory input to AgRP neurons and diminishes concomitant regain of lost weight. Brief stimulation of the pathway is sufficient to enduringly potentiate this glutamatergic hunger synapse and triggers an NMDAR-dependent gaining of body weight that enduringly persists. Identification of this activity-dependent synaptic amplifier provides a previously unrecognized target to combat regain of lost weight. 
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Artificial Intelligence in Medicine!

 | Post date: 2023/04/4 | 
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Creation of mammal with two biological fathers could pave the way for new fertility treatments in humans!

 | Post date: 2023/03/28 | 
Scientists at Kyushu University in Japan have created mice with two biological fathers by generating eggs from male cells, a development that opens up radical new possibilities for reproduction. In this study, they efficiently converted the XY chromosome set to XX without an additional Y chromosome in mouse pluripotent stem (PS) cells. In addition, this chromosomal alteration successfully eradicated trisomy 16, a model of Down’s syndrome, in PS cells. Artificially produced euploid XX PS cells differentiated into mature oocytes in culture with similar efficiency to native XX PS cells. Using this method, they differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells from the tail of a sexually mature male mouse into fully potent oocytes, which gave rise to offspring after fertilization. 
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FDA Authorizes First Test to Detect Both Influenza and COVID-19 Viruses!

 | Post date: 2023/03/13 | 
Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued an emergency use authorization (EUA) for the first over-the-counter (OTC) at-home diagnostic test that can differentiate and detect influenza A and B, commonly known as the flu, and SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The Lucira COVID-19 & Flu Home Test is a single-use at-home test kit that provides results from self-collected nasal swab samples in roughly 30 minutes. The Lucira COVID-19 & Flu Home Test is a single use test for individuals with signs and symptoms consistent with a respiratory tract infection, including COVID-19. The test can be performed completely at home using nasal swab samples self-collected by individuals ages 14 years or older or collected by an adult for individuals 2 years of age or older. The test works by swirling the sample swab in a vial that is placed in the test unit. In 30 minutes or less, the test unit will display the results that show whether a person is positive or negative for each of the following: Influenza A, Influenza B and COVID-19. Individuals should report all results obtained to their healthcare provider for public health reporting and to receive appropriate medical care. In individuals with symptoms, the Lucira COVID-19 & Flu Home Test correctly identified 99.3% of negative and 90% of positive Influenza A samples, 100% of negative and 88.3% of positive COVID-19 samples and 99.9% of negative Influenza B samples. Since there are currently not enough cases of Influenza B circulating to include in a clinical study, validation confirmed that the test can identify the virus in contrived specimens, and the EUA requires Lucira to continue to collect samples to study the test’s ability to detect Influenza B in real-world settings.   
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Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)!

 | Post date: 2023/03/6 | 

Lupus is an autoimmune disease. That means the immune system, which is supposed to fight infection, is attacking healthy tissue instead. The disease can cause inflammation and pain in any part of the body, although it commonly affects the skin, joints, and internal organs. It’s estimated that 1.5 million people in the United States have lupus, most between the ages of 15 and 44. Since lupus can’t be cured, doctors work on managing the disease and treating its symptoms.

There are different types of lupus, including:

  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which can cause acute or chronic inflammation in multiple organs or organ systems in the body; it is the focus of new strategies for care.
  • Chronic cutaneous lupus, which is limited to the skin, but can progress to SLE.
  • Drug-induced lupus syndromes, which are caused by certain drugs. They may be mild or severe, but generally improve after the medication is stopped. These syndromes can often be diagnosed based on symptoms and laboratory testing.
  • Neonatal lupus, which affects infants of women with lupus as either a rash or, more rarely, irregular heart rhythms. Skin symptoms typically disappear six months after delivery. Changes in heart rhythm require specialized cardiac care.

One clue that leads lupus specialists to suspect a patient may have the disease is evidence of inflammation in several organ systems, such as the skin, blood vessels, and joints.

Beyond that, there is range of symptoms that can occur in different combinations. Some people have heard of the red, butterfly-shaped rash over the cheeks and nose that is associated with lupus—but many patients don’t get that rash, and in people who do, it doesn’t always mean lupus. 
Although systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is generally a polygenic autoimmune disease, the discovery of monogenic lupus cases and rare pathogenic variants has provided important insights into disease mechanisms, including important roles of complement, type I interferons and B cell survival. There is accumulating evidence that patients with SLE display phenotypes that are consistent with increased TLR7 signalling associated with elevated IgDCD27 double-negative B cells and, more specifically, the CXCR5CD11c+ subset (also known as DN2 B cells or age-associated B cells (ABCs)) in the peripheral blood, and excessive accumulation of extrafollicular helper T cells. in a research study, scientists describe the action of a de novo TLR7 single-residue gain-of-function (GOF) variant that increases the affinity of TLR7 for guanosine and cGMP, causing enhanced TLR7 activation and childhood-onset SLE.
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28 February: Rare Disease Day1

 | Post date: 2023/02/28 | 
28 February is known as Rare Disease Day for raising awareness and generating change for the 300 million people worldwide living with a rare disease, their families and carers. In the United States, a disease is considered “rare” if it affects fewer than 200,000 individuals. More than 7,000 diseases fit the bill, and all told, between 25 and 30 million Americans are living with a rare disease. The majority of these diseases are genetic. 
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Coffee Consumption Association with Cardiovascular Disease Mortality!

 | Post date: 2023/02/20 | 
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Making Cancer History by following an appropriate lifestyle!

 | Post date: 2023/02/6 | 

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and according to studies by the American Cancer Society, has been known as the second leading cause of death in the United States. Various types of cancer can affect different tissues. In this regard, the World Health Organization(WHO)  has listed lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, skin cancer( non-melanoma), and stomach as the most common types of cancer in the world in 2018, respectively. World Cancer Day, February 4th, aims to promote awareness of cancer as a public health issue and to strengthen actions toward improving access to quality care, screening, early detection, treatment and palliative care. This year’s theme marks the second year of the campaign “close the care gap” which is about understanding the inequities in cancer care and taking actions to make the necessary progress in addressing them. On World Cancer Day 2023, various activities will take place globally, including the "5k Challenge" by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), encouraging individuals from all backgrounds to participate in activities such as running, cycling, swimming, hiking or walking to symbolize closing the gap in care. Additionally, there will be "21-day challenges" for individuals to create new healthy habits, raise awareness about cervical cancer, and educate themselves about inequalities in accessing cancer services. 

5k Challenge:
Close a loop of 5 kilometres by running, cycling, swimming, walking, hiking...you get the idea! Once you’ve completed the challenge, post your accomplishment on Instagram, TikTok, or the channel of your choice and nominate 5 of your friends to do the same and help spread the word! 
21-day challenges:
for people to create new positive healthy habits, help eliminate cervical cancer or educate themselves and speak out about inequities in accessing cancer services.
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Could non-animal technologies be able to replace animal models?

 | Post date: 2023/01/23 | 
FDA no longer requires all drugs to be tested on animals before human trials. In a victory for animal rights advocates, drugmakers can take their products to human clinical trials using alternative testing methods that don't involve animals. According to a new law, signed by President Joe Biden at the end of last year, the mandate that all drugs be tested on animals before progressing to human trials has been waived.
In place of the 1938 stipulation that potential drugs be tested for safety and efficacy in animals, the law allows FDA to promote a drug or biologic—a larger molecule such as an antibody to human trials after either animal or nonanimal tests. 
Animal alternatives include organ chip technology, organoids, and 3D clusters of cells that are derived from stem cells and mimic specific tissues. They have shown promise in predicting liver and cardiac toxicities. Proponents also tout the potential of digital artificial neural networks for rapidly identifying the toxic effects of drugs. however, some scientists argue that non-animal technologies are still “in their infancy” and won’t be able to replace animal models for “many, many years.” FDA still retains tremendous discretion to require animal tests, they note, and they don’t expect the agency to change tack anytime soon.
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Newly Discovered Gut Microbe Could Be a Trigger For Rheumatoid Arthritis!

 | Post date: 2023/01/17 | 
Rheumatoid arthritis affects millions worldwide and often leaves patients debilitated with chronic pain and joint inflammation. Scientists have long struggled to figure out the core causes of the condition. Now, research involving mice and a small group of patients has connected the early stages of rheumatoid arthritis to a newly discovered species of bacteria found in the gut microbiome — the vast community of microbes that assist digestion and influence human health. The new study, published in the October 26 issue of Science Translational Medicine, revealed that this bacterial species could trigger the formation of autoantibodies, or antibodies that target the body's own tissues. 
The mucosal origins hypothesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) proposes a central role for mucosal immune responses in the initiation or perpetuation of the systemic autoimmunity that occurs with disease. However, the connection between the mucosa and systemic autoimmunity in RA remains unclear. Using dual immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG family plasmablast–derived monoclonal autoantibodies obtained from peripheral blood of individuals at risk for RA, they identified cross-reactivity between RA-relevant autoantigens and bacterial taxa in the closely related families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. After generating bacterial isolates within the Lachnospiraceae/Ruminococcaceae genus Subdoligranulum from the feces of an individual, they confirmed monoclonal antibody binding and CD4+ T cell activation in individuals with RA compared to control individuals. In addition, when Subdoligranulum isolate 7 but not isolate 1 colonized germ-free mice, it stimulated TH17 cell expansion, serum RA–relevant IgG autoantibodies, and joint swelling reminiscent of early RA, with histopathology characterized by antibody deposition and complement activation. Systemic immune responses were likely due to mucosal invasion along with the generation of colon-isolated lymphoid follicles driving increased fecal and serum IgA by isolate 7, because B and CD4+ T cell depletion not only halted intestinal immune responses but also eliminated detectable clinical disease. In aggregate, these findings demonstrate a mechanism of RA pathogenesis through which a specific intestinal strain of bacteria can drive systemic autoantibody generation and joint-centered antibody deposition and immune activation.
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Lecanemab: the second-ever treatment for Alzheimer’s disease!

 | Post date: 2023/01/9 | 
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved lecanemab, the second-ever treatment for Alzheimer’s disease intended to tackle the root of the condition and slow cognitive decline. Researchers welcome the decision, but the excitement is clouded by patient deaths and reports that the FDA acted improperly when approving the first such drug last year. Lecanemab, which will be sold under the brand name Leqembi, is the first Alzheimer’s treatment to slow cognitive decline in a robust clinical trial and the second to be approved in less than two years. It is made by the biopharmaceutical companies Eisai, in Tokyo, Japan, and Biogen in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The drug, a monoclonal antibody, is intravenously infused into patients, enters the brain and clears the amyloid plaques believed to cause cognitive impairment and dementia in Alzheimer’s. Lecanemab was authorized under the agency’s ‘accelerated approval’ pathway, which is reserved for therapies for diseases that have few treatments; it also does not require phase III clinical trial data. But researchers are hopeful about Biogen and Eisai’s phase III data, which were published in November 2022. That trial, conducted in about 1,800 people with early-stage Alzheimer’s, found that the antibody slowed cognitive decline by 27% over 18 months of treatment.
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Stem cells in combination with 3D bioprinting produce eye tissue!

 | Post date: 2022/12/28 | 
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness, initiates in the outer-blood-retina-barrier (oBRB) formed by the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), Bruch’s membrane, and choriocapillaris. The mechanisms of AMD initiation and progression remain poorly understood owing to the lack of physiologically relevant human oBRB models. In this regard, from the National Eye Institute (NEI), part of the National Institutes of Health, printed a combination of cells that form the outer blood-retina barrier - eye tissue that supports the retina's light-sensing photoreceptors. The technique provides a theoretically unlimited supply of patient-derived tissue to study degenerative retinal diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). 

They engineered a native-like three-dimensional (3D) oBRB tissue (3D-oBRB) by bioprinting endothelial cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts on the basal side of a biodegradable scaffold and establishing an RPE monolayer on top. In this 3D-oBRB model, a fully-polarized RPE monolayer provides barrier resistance, induces choriocapillaris fenestration, and supports the formation of Bruch’s-membrane-like structure by inducing changes in gene expression in cells of the choroid. Complement activation in the 3D-oBRB triggers dry AMD phenotypes (including subRPE lipid-rich deposits called drusen and choriocapillaris degeneration), and HIF-α stabilization or STAT3 overactivation induce choriocapillaris neovascularization and type-I wet AMD phenotype. The 3D-oBRB provides a physiologically relevant model to studying RPE–choriocapillaris interactions under healthy and diseased conditions.
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New blood test can detect 'toxic' protein years before Alzheimer's symptoms emerge!

 | Post date: 2022/12/19 | 
Researchers at the University of Washington has developed a laboratory test that can measure levels of amyloid beta oligomers in blood samples. They showed The presence of α–sheet Aβ oligomers in plasma, as detected with SOBA, is highly correlated with Alzheimer's disease. They show that a designed α–sheet peptide inhibits the deleterious effects on neuronal signaling and also serves as a capture agent in our soluble oligomer binding assay (SOBA). Pre-incubated synthetic α–sheet-containing Aβ oligomers produce strong SOBA signals, while monomeric and β-sheet protofibrillar Aβ do not. α–sheet containing oligomers were also present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from an AD patient versus a noncognitively impaired control. For the detection of toxic oligomers in plasma, they developed a plate coating to increase the density of the capture peptide. The proof of concept was achieved by testing 379 banked human plasma samples. SOBA detected Aβ oligomers in patients on the AD continuum, including controls who later progressed to mild cognitive impairment. In addition, SOBA discriminated AD from other forms of dementia, yielding sensitivity and specificity of 99% relative to clinical and neuropathological diagnoses. To explore the broader potential of SOBA, they adapted the assay for a-synuclein oligomers and confirmed their presence in CSF from patients with Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia.
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